Financial Markets Topical Guide
Wall Street entered a bear market on June 13 as the S&P 500 sank 3.9%, bringing it more than 20% below the record high of 4,796.56 set on Jan. 3, 2022. Rising interest rates, high inflation, the war in Ukraine and a slowdown in China's economy have caused investors to reconsider the prices they're willing to pay for a wide range of stocks, from high-flying tech companies to traditional automakers.
The Associated Press has compiled an editorial style guide of essential terms, spellings and definitions, and some key background. In addition, the AP produces occasional guides to localizing major national or international stories. Excerpts from the current localization guide are at the bottom.
A period of generally declining stock prices over a prolonged period, generally defined as a 20% or larger decline in broad stock indexes such as the S&P 500. The most recent bear market for the S&P 500 before June 13 ran from Feb. 19, 2020, through March 23, 2020, and was the shortest on record. The previous bear market stretched from October 2007 to March 2009, after the housing bubble burst.
The S&P 500, the basis of many index funds, is the stock market benchmark most closely watched by professional investors and market experts. Fears about a fragile economy and stubbornly high inflation slammed the stock market in recent days and sent Treasury yields surging to their highest levels in years. A report on June 10 that inflation was getting worse, not better as many had hoped, sent a chill through markets.
The S&P 500 has come back from every one of its prior bear markets to eventually rise to another all-time high. The down decade for the stock market following the 2000 bursting of the dot-com bubble was a notoriously brutal stretch, but stocks have often been able to regain their highs within a few years.
On average, bear markets have taken 13 months to go from peak to trough and 27 months to get back to breakeven since World War II. The S&P 500 index has fallen an average of 33% during bear markets in that time. The biggest decline since 1945 occurred in the 2007-2009 bear market when the S&P 500 fell 57%.
The longest bear market lasted 61 months and ended in March 1942 and cut the index by 60%.
What has contributed to the bear market?
Most of this year's damage on Wall Street has been the result of the Federal Reserve's aggressive shift away from doing everything it can to prop up financial markets and the economy.
The central bank has already raised its key short-term interest rate from its record low near zero, where it sat for nearly all the pandemic. And the Fed has signaled additional increases of double the usual amount are possible in upcoming months as it attempts to stamp out the high inflation sweeping the economy.
The moves by design will slow the economy by making it more expensive to borrow.
The risk is the Fed could cause a recession if it raises rates too high or too quickly. In the meantime, higher rates discourage investors from paying very high prices for investments, because investors can get a better return from owning super-safe Treasury bonds than they could just a few weeks ago.
More recently, big earnings misses by major retailers have stoked investors' fears that surging inflation could cut deeply into corporate earnings, a key driver of stock prices.
Why is it called a bear market?
Bears hibernate, so bears represent a market that's retreating, said Sam Stovall, chief investment strategist at CFRA. In contrast, Wall Street's nickname for a surging stock market is a bull market, because bulls charge, Stovall said.
A period of generally rising stock prices over a prolonged period, generally defined as a 20% or larger increase in broad stock indexes such as the S&P 500. Experts consider March 2020 as the beginning of a bull market.
A correction happens when a stock, bond, commodity or index declines 10% from a recent peak. Most market watchers wait until the market has closed for the day before declaring that an index or other measure has officially entered a correction. Corrections are common during bull markets, and are considered normal and even healthy. They allow markets to remove speculative froth after a big run-up and give investors a chance to buy stocks at lower prices. During the record 11-year bull market that started in March 2009, the S&P 500 had five corrections, the last of which happened in late 2018.
cost of living
The amount of money needed to pay taxes and to buy the goods and services deemed necessary to make up a given standard of living, taking into account changes that may occur in tastes and buying patterns.
The term often is treated incorrectly as a synonym for the U.S. Consumer Price Index, which does not take taxes into account and measures only price changes, keeping the quantities constant over time.
Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: The cost of living went up, but he did not receive a cost-of-living raise.
While there's no standard definition, a crash can be a sudden, dramatic decline in stock, bond or commodities prices, as in 1987. A crash can also occur over a longer period, with a succession of sharp declines, as in the market crash of 1929. Market declines in crashes are faster and deeper than in corrections. In spring of 2020 the price of oil crashed as the COVID-19 pandemic sapped demand and producers failed to sufficiently rein in production, leading to an oversupply of crude.
dead cat bounce
A temporary recovery in share prices after a substantial fall, caused by speculators buying in order to cover their positions.
Dow Jones Industrial Average
The market indicator comprises 30 leading U.S. stocks. The average is calculated and published by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, which is jointly owned by S&P Global Inc. and CME Group Inc. The average is maintained by S&P Dow Jones Indices' averages committee, comprising representatives of S&P Dow Jones Indices and The Wall Street Journal. Always use the full name on first reference in stories. On subsequent references, use the Dow. The Dow is also acceptable in summaries and headlines.
Use a hyphen in all e- words except email and esports: e-book, e-reader, e-commerce.
The central bank of the United States. It comprises the Federal Open Market Committee, which sets interest rates; the Federal Reserve Board, the regulatory body made up of Fed governors in Washington; and the Federal Reserve System, which includes the Fed in Washington and 12 regional Fed banks. Use Federal Reserve on first reference, the Fed on second reference.
furlough versus layoff (n.) lay off (v.)
When workers are furloughed, they are let go by an employer but are considered on a leave of absence and sometimes remain eligible for benefits such as health insurance. Employees who are laid off are considered permanently let go. Both categories of workers are eligible for unemployment benefits.
gross domestic product
A common measure of economic growth, reflecting the total value of goods and services produced in a country. Economists often refer to the GDP. Spell it out on first reference and define it in the story for clarity.
A sustained increase in prices. The result is a decrease in the purchasing power of money. There are two basic types of inflation:
— Cost-push inflation occurs when increases in the price of specific items, such as oil or food, are big enough to drive up prices overall.
— Demand-pull inflation occurs when the amount of money available exceeds the amount of goods and services available for sale.
National Bureau of Economic Research
A nonprofit research organization. Its Business Cycle Dating Committee monitors the U.S. business cycle for economic activity to identify recessions and expansions after the fact, based on economic data. That means there is not an official declaration of recession while it is happening.
A major U.S. stock index, often referred to in conjunction with the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the S&P 500 index. The Nasdaq composite is an index of all the stocks listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market. On second reference: the Nasdaq.
Nasdaq Stock Market
The world's first all-electronic stock market and a direct competitor to the New York Stock Exchange. Parent company is Nasdaq Inc.
percent, percentage, percentage points
Use the % sign when paired with a numeral, with no space, in most cases: The S&P 500 future contract was down 3.2% and the future for the Dow dropped 3.3%.
In casual uses, use words rather than figures and numbers: She said he has a zero percent chance of winning.
At the start of a sentence: Try to avoid this construction. If it's necessary to start a sentence with a percentage, spell out both: Eighty-nine percent of sentences don't have to begin with a number.
Constructions with the % sign take a singular verb when standing alone or when a singular word follows an of construction: The teacher said 60% was a failing grade. He said 50% of the membership was there.
It takes a plural verb when a plural word follows an of construction: He said 50% of the members were there.
Use decimals, not fractions, in percentages: Her mortgage rate is 4.5%.
For a range, 12% to 15%, 12%-15% and between 12% and 15% are all acceptable.
Use percentage, rather than percent, when not paired with a number: The percentage of people agreeing is small.
Be careful not to confuse percent with percentage point. A change from 10% to 13% is a rise of 3 percentage points. This is not equal to a 3% change; rather, it's a 30% increase.
Usage: Republicans passed a 0.25 percentage point tax cut. Not: Republicans passed a 0.25 percentage points tax cut or Republicans passed a tax cut of 0.25 of a percentage point.
A benchmark rate used by banks to set interest charges on a variety of corporate and consumer loans, including some adjustable home mortgages, revolving credit cards and business loans extended to their most creditworthy customers. Banks almost always raise or lower their rates by a similar amount on the same day Federal Reserve policymakers change their target for overnight loans between banks, known as the federal funds rate.
producer price index
An index of changes in wholesale prices, produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, and used as a gauge of inflation. Spell the index name lowercase.
A recession is a falling-off of economic activity that may be a temporary phenomenon or could continue into a depression. A common definition is two straight quarters of economic contraction. A more official determination is made by the National Bureau of Economic Research, which considers a range of indicators in declaring a recession. The bureau's determination is typically made well after a recession has begun and sometimes after it has ended.
There is no agreed-upon definition of a depression. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, unemployment peaked at 25% and the stock market lost 90% of its value from boom to bust. Today, there are safeguards in place that didn't exist in the 1930s: deposit insurance, unemployment benefits and the ability of the government to spend trillions of dollars to bolster the economy.
The recession that began in December 2007 and became the longest and deepest since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It occurred after losses on subprime mortgages battered the U.S. housing market and financial system. The National Bureau of Economic Research said it officially ended in June 2009, having lasted 18 months.
A sell-off is the rapid selling of securities such as stocks, bonds or commodities. A sell-off can occur in an individual security – a company's stock, the 10-year Treasury note, crude oil futures – or in a broader market. A minor sell-off is called a pullback.
The market indicator most professional investors use to determine how stocks are performing. It encompasses 500 top companies in leading U.S. industries. Many mutual funds use it as the benchmark they measure their own performance against.
shelter in place (v.), shelter-in-place (adj.)
The governor urged residents to shelter in place. Authorities issued a shelter-in-place order. Spell out what is meant, because people's definitions and interpretations vary.
stay at home (v.), stay-at-home (adj.)
shutdown (n.), shut down (v.)
In the United States, this estimate of the number of unemployed residents seeking work is compiled monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, an agency of the Labor Department.
Each month the bureau selects a cross section of the population and conducts interviews to determine the size of the U.S. workforce. The workforce is defined as the number of people who either have a job or are looking for one. The unemployment rate is expressed as a percentage: the proportion of the workforce that is out of work and looking for a job, adjusted to reflect variable factors such as seasonal trends.
The unemployment rate does not count people who are not looking for work, whether that is because they have given up, they are ill or they are caring for a family member. Nor does it count people who lost a full-time job and took a part-time job while they continue to look for full-time work. When workers are jobless for 27 weeks or more and have actively sought employment during the previous four weeks, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies it as long-term unemployment
A type of tax-free retirement savings account. Money in the account is invested in a variety of assets including stocks, according to options chosen by the account holder.
The steep declines mean Americans who invested in the stock market, whether on their own or through a work sponsored retirement account, have likely seen the value of their stock portfolios shrink quite a bit.
— A key question to explore: How are local investors coping and reacting to the Wall Street sell-off? It's likely that the answers to that will depend largely on whether they are older Americans, rather than investors in their 20s and 30s. How are investors near retirement and retirees already making withdrawals from their retirement portfolio holding up? Are they rebalancing their stock portfolio? Are they pulling out now before it gets worse? Or "buying the dip" and picking up big name stocks like Apple that are a lot less expensive than they were earlier this year?
— Younger investors who are mainly trying to grow a nest egg for when they retire are likely not as worried, nor are they perhaps making big changes. However, as many have come of age during a bull market that ran for over a decade (2009-2020), perhaps they're motivated to cut their losses?
— Have investors come to see market downturns as something they can ride out, given how strongly and quickly the market has bounced back from bear markets in recent years? If so, there could be colorful anecdotes to be found among investors who are not worried at all about the market's ups and downs.
— Similarly to a strong housing market, when stocks are climbing investors can't help but feel more financially secure, even if the gains are all on paper. This wealth effect can make people more eager to spend money. The question here is, what's the impact on local businesses, if any, as the stock market losses pile up. Fewer customers? Canceled orders?
— So-called retail investors helped push up stock prices the last couple of years. A story could focus on where the sell-off has left these novice investors, especially those who bought into cryptocurrencies and meme stocks, which soared in 2021 but are now in a slump with the rest of the market.
— Consider your city's demographics. Areas with retirement communities, including some "active adult" developments for people 55 and over, could be worth exploring to connect with investors who are retired or just a few years away. How has the stock market slump affected their plans for vacations? Are they having trouble making ends meet?
— It may be worthwhile to reach out to someone who is not an investor and gauge what's kept them from making a long-term bet on Wall Street's track record for steady gains over time. Perhaps they can't afford to invest or don't trust buying shares in a company. Are they happy to have presumably avoided the kind of hefty losses that many 401k plans have sustained this year?
— That said, don't be surprised if many people aren't eager to talk about money, especially if they racked up losses. You may have better luck searching online investor forums, like those on Reddit, or individual investors on Twitter or Facebook who make a habit of disclosing their stock trades, sometimes even posting screenshots of their holdings right from their stock trading app.
— Connect with a stock market expert who can frame how not participating in the stock market has hurt some households.
— Individual investors aren't the only ones who stand to make big money or lose their shirt in the stock market. Public employee pension funds, like those many state teachers unions have, can help illustrate the opportunity and potential downsides to investing in stocks. Leading up to the Great Recession, some high-profile state public union pension funds lost billions betting on mortgage-backed securities, for example.
Transgender Coverage Topical Guide
Journalists on all beats must be able to write about and interview transgender people using accurate, sensitive, unbiased language.
Gender terminology is vast and constantly evolving; a style guide can't cover everything. Let your sources guide you on how they want to be identified, and then use your judgment to be both sensitive and accurate.
Avoid false balance — giving a platform to unqualified claims or sources in the guise of balancing a story by including all views. For instance, don't quote people speaking about biology or athletic regulations unless they have the proper background. If you do need to use the quotes, fact-check them within the story.
Gender refers to internal and social identity and often corresponds with but is not synonymous with sex. Experts say gender is a spectrum, not a binary structure consisting of only males and females, that can vary by society and change over time.
Sex refers to biological characteristics, such as chromosomes, hormones and reproductive anatomy.
Since not all people fall under one of two categories for sex or gender — as in the cases of nonbinary and intersex people — avoid references to both, either or opposite sexes or genders.
An overview of some key topics in understanding transgender people and how to cover them, followed by a granular list of terminology:
Terminology and red flags
At its most basic, transgender is an adjective describing a person whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth. For example, a person may be declared a boy at birth based on physical observation but may grow up feeling intrinsically like a girl, and later exhibit gender expressions such as preferring clothing or hairstyles typically associated with girls.
Some nonbinary people consider themselves transgender because while they may not identify as strictly male or female, their identity does not correspond to their assigned sex.
Use the term sex (or gender) assigned at birth instead of biological sex, birth gender, was identified at birth as, born a girl and the like.
The word identify is frequently used to describe how someone views themself and can be useful when writing about issues of identity. But often phrasing like is a woman is more to the point than identifies as a woman.
Avoid terms like biological male, which opponents of transgender rights sometimes use to oversimplify sex and gender, is often misleading shorthand for assigned male at birth, and is redundant because sex is inherently biological.
Some people use the word groom or variants of it to falsely liken LGBTQ people's interactions with children, or education about LGBTQ issues, to the actions of child molesters. Do not quote people using the term in this context without clearly stating it is untrue.
Do not use the term transgendered or use transgender/s as a noun.
Gender dysphoria and gender transitions
Gender dysphoria is the distress felt when someone's gender identity (feeling like a boy, girl, neither or both) doesn't match the sex assigned at birth. It is a medical diagnosis required for people to undergo gender-confirmation procedures, sometimes referred to as gender-affirming care or similar terminology.
The World Professional Association for Transgender Health recently lowered its recommended minimum age for starting gender transition treatment, including sex hormones and surgeries. It says hormones can be started at age 14 and some surgeries at 15 or 17.
Treatments can improve psychological well-being and reduce suicidal behavior. Starting treatment earlier can allow transgender teens to experience puberty around the same time as other teens. But other factors must be weighed, including emotional maturity, parents' consent and a psychological evaluation.
But even ahead of contemplating medical treatment, experts agree that allowing children to express their gender in a way that matches their identity is beneficial, such as letting children assigned male at birth wear clothing or hairstyles usually associated with girls, if that is their wish.
Do not equate a gender transition with becoming a man, becoming a woman or the outdated terminology sex change.
If you aren't already clear which pronoun a person uses, it's OK and often advised to ask them. Use your judgment on whether asking sources for their pronouns could complicate your relationship or distress someone.
Don't refer in interviews or stories to preferred or chosen pronouns. Instead, the pronouns they use, whose pronouns are, who uses the pronouns, etc.
While many transgender people use he/him and she/her pronouns, others — including nonbinary, agender or gender-fluid people — use they/them as a gender-neutral singular personal pronoun.
As much as possible, AP also uses they/them/their as a way of accurately describing and representing a person who uses those pronouns for themself. For more guidelines and perspectives, see the full pronouns entry.
Use a transgender person's previous name, or deadname, very rarely and only if required to understand the news or if requested by the person. Deadnaming someone can be akin to using a slur and can cause feelings of gender dysphoria to resurface.
When public figures announce a gender transition that includes a name change, generally use the deadname only once and not in the opening paragraph, with future coverage using only the new name.
When naming suspects or victims in stories about crimes or accidents, be cognizant that authorities or family members may be ignorant of or disregarding the person's identity; the person, their friends or others may have better information about how the person lived and identified.
If you do misname or misgender someone, correct it like other factual error and use the correct name, gender and pronouns thereafter.
Starting in 2020, conservative-leaning U.S. state legislatures began considering a wave of bills aimed at transgender youths. Many political observers assert that the legislation is being used to motivate voters by falsely framing children as under threat.
In the following two years, more than a dozen states passed laws banning transgender athletes from certain sports teams. Opponents say that the measures unfairly target an already marginalized community, and that rules and monitoring in individual leagues and conferences render such legislation unnecessary.
Several states have also taken steps to criminalize gender-affirming health care for transgender youths. Backers of such bans say minors are too young to make gender-transition decisions, while doctors and parents raise alarms that such restrictions to medical care put youths at serious risk.
Covering transgender people in sports
Recent moves by athletic associations, legislatures and school districts seek to restrict the ability of transgender athletes, and in particular transgender women, to compete in a way that aligns with their gender.
When covering such proposals or restrictions, check your assumptions and facts.
Proponents of such restrictions assert that transgender women have an athletic advantage over cisgender women. Transgender athletes' backers argue, among other things, that individuals are different, that sweeping restrictions overblow the prevalence of the issue, and that it's not possible to know with certainty what gives any particular athlete, transgender or cisgender, a competitive edge.
Don't refer to male or female hormones. All people have the same hormones; only their levels vary. If discussion of hormones is needed, name the specific hormone(s).
Don't use phrasing that misgenders people or implies doubt, such as former men's swimmer or currently competes as a woman. Instead, formerly competed with men, current member of the women's team, etc.
Be clear on the intent of proposals or restrictions. Avoid constructions like transgender bans that imply trans people, not their participation in an activity, are the thing being banned. If transgender women are banned from playing on women's teams, say that. Be aware that laws affecting trans athletes may not only affect trans women, so be sure reporting reflects the specific legislative language used.
If transgender players of any gender are banned from playing on teams in line with their gender, say that.
Other guidance and terminology, arranged alphabetically:
Describes people whose gender identity matches the sex they were assigned at birth; that is, not transgender. Explain if necessary. Do not use terms like normal to describe people who are not transgender. Not synonymous with heterosexual, which refers to sexual orientation.
A social construct encompassing a person's behaviors, intrinsic identity and appearance. Gender often corresponds with but is not synonymous with sex. A person's sex and gender are usually assigned at birth by parents or attendants and can turn out to be inaccurate. Experts say gender is a spectrum, not a binary structure consisting of only men and women, that can vary among societies and can change over time.
The medical treatments that transgender and nonbinary people sometimes use to transition, or alter their sexual characteristics. Can include surgery and/or hormone therapy.
Sometimes rendered gender-confirming as an adjective. Alternatives such as gender affirmation and sex reassignment are acceptable in quotes and in proper names.
If surgery is involved, gender-confirmation surgery. Do not use abbreviations such as GCS or SRS unless in quotes, and introduce the full term before the quote. Do not use the outdated term sex change, and avoid describing someone as pre-op or post-op.
Refer to a person's gender-confirmation surgery only when relevant. Surgery is not necessary for people to transition.
How people outwardly convey their gender, intentionally or not, such as through fashion choices, mannerisms or pronouns. Gender stereotypes can lead others to incorrectly perceive someone's gender or sexual orientation.
Refers to a gender identity or expression that changes over time. Include the hyphen.
A person's sense of feeling male, female, neither or some combination of both. Often just gender will suffice: She spent a lot of time explaining her gender may work just as well as She spent a lot of time explaining her gender identity. Examples of gender identities include man or boy; woman or girl; nonbinary; bigender; agender; gender-fluid; genderqueer; and combinations of identities, such as nonbinary woman.
Acceptable in broad references to describe people whose identities or expressions do not follow gender norms. May include but is not synonymous with transgender. Avoid dated terminology such as gender-bending or tomboy.
An identity describing people whose gender expression does not follow norms; use only if the person or group identifies as such. Not synonymous with nonbinary.
Describes people born with genitalia, reproductive organs, chromosomes and/or hormone levels that don't fit typical definitions for males or females. Identify specific people as intersex only if they use the term themselves. Not synonymous with nonbinary or transgender. Do not use as a noun.
When relevant, describe the person's specific condition, along with a brief explanation: Statler has Klinefelter syndrome, in which males have an extra X chromosome. The term difference(s) in sex development is acceptable in quotes and medical contexts; limited use of the abbreviation DSD is acceptable in subsequent references. Avoid the outdated term hermaphrodite.
Describes people who don't identify as strictly men or women; can include agender (having no gender), gender-fluid (an identity that fluctuates) or a combination of male and female. Not synonymous with transgender, though some nonbinary people are also transgender.
The term openly can imply that to identify as transgender is inherently shameful, so use it only when relevant: Xiong is the group's first openly transgender president (which would allow for the possibility that previous presidents were transgender but not open about it.)
Do not use terms like avowed or admitted.
Don't assume that because news figures address their gender transition publicly, it qualifies as coming out; public figures may consider themselves out even if they haven't previously addressed their identity publicly.
Outing or outed is usually used when someone's identity is revealed against their knowledge or will.
pregnant women, pregnant people
Pregnant women or women seeking abortions is acceptable phrasing. Phrasing like pregnant people or people seeking abortions is increasingly used in medical contexts and is also acceptable to include people who have those experiences but do not identify as women, such as some transgender men and some nonbinary people. Use judgment and decide what is most appropriate in a given story. Neutral alternatives like abortion patients are also acceptable, but do not use overly clinical language like people with uteruses or birthing people.
They as a singular pronoun may be confusing to some readers and amount to a roadblock that stops them from reading further. Some people also use multiple pronouns, such as she/they, which could further trip up readers. At the same time, though, efforts to write without pronouns to avoid confusion may make people feel censored or invisible.
How to balance those priorities? Try to honor both your readers and your story subjects. As in all news writing, clarity is paramount.
Often, as can be the case even with traditional pronoun use, a sentence can be sensitively and smoothly written with no pronoun. For example: Hendricks said the new job is a thrill (instead of Hendricks said Hendricks is thrilled about the new job or Hendricks said they are thrilled about the new job).
When using they/them/their as a singular pronoun, explain if it isn't clear in context: Morales, who uses the pronoun they, said they will retire in June.
Be sure that the phrasing does not imply more than one person. Rephrase if needed to avoid confusion about the antecedent.
Don't make assumptions about a person's gender identity based on their pronouns, or vice versa. Don't assume a person's pronouns based on their first name.
In general, do not use neopronouns such as xe or zim; they are rarely used and are unrecognizable as words to general audiences.
They/them/their take plural verbs even when used as a singular pronoun, and the singular reflexive themself is also acceptable when referring to people who use they/them/their.
Male or female puberty or puberty typical of males or females is acceptable in reference to transgender people who did not take hormone-altering medication during puberty.
Refers to biological and physiological characteristics, including but not limited to chromosomes, hormones and reproductive organs. A person's sex is usually assigned at birth by parents or attendants, sometimes inaccurately. Sex often corresponds with but is not synonymous with gender, which is a social construct.
Describes people whose gender does not match the one usually associated with the sex they were assigned at birth. Identify people as transgender only when relevant, and use the name by which they live publicly. Unless it is central to the story, avoid mention of a person's gender transition or gender-confirmation surgery in news coverage, which can be intrusive and insensitive.
The shorthand trans is acceptable on second reference and in headlines. Do not use the outdated term transsexual unless a source specifically asks to be identified as such.
Avoid the word tranny, which is a slur.
transition (n., v.), gender transition
The legal, medical or social processes some transgender or nonbinary people undergo to match their gender identity. Examples can include a formal or informal change to names or pronouns, makeup and hairstyles, hormone therapy, or gender-confirmation surgery. Mention or describe it only when relevant.
Some people who have undergone gender-confirmation procedures refer to themselves as transsexual; use the term only if a person requests it.
People's awareness of themselves in a sexual sense. It incorporates a person's sex, gender identity, gender expression and sexual orientation.
Increasingly popular shorthand for the concept of sexual orientation and gender identity. Avoid using the acronym unless necessary, as in a quote or name of an organization, and explain the term if used.