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Ask the Editor provides answers, clarification and guidance on style issues that go beyond the pages of the AP Stylebook. Before posing a question to AP editor David Minthorn, search the accompanying style archives for your topic. With thousands of questions and answers on file, your topic has very likely been covered. For typical style questions and responses, visit Ask the Editor FAQ.

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Ask the Editor questions from the past week:

Q. What's your guidance for inserting organization names in parentheses? For example, on first mention, the WMO is often written thus: "... the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said Thursday." For me, the () are unnecessary, but others appear to disagree. My question is: How to decide when the () are needed and when they're not needed. – from Tokyo on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. See AVOID AWARD CONSTRUCTIONS in the "abbreviations and acronyms" entry.

Q. When referencing the regions of the U.S. (West, East, North, South), should they be capitalized? On a global scale, should West, East, Western world, Eastern world, Eastern Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere be capped as shown here? – from Portland, Ore. on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. Yes. See "directions and regions" and "hemisphere" entries.

Q. I believe this is correct: We use a variety of methods to identify problems and plan solutions. But, my colleague believes there should be another 'to' in there: ...to identify problems and to plan solutions. Which is correct? – from Encinitas, Calif. on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. Your phrasing is more conversational and natural. I'd leave it as is.

Q. I've not seen this case addressed in rules about commas, question marks and quotes. Should there be a comma anywhere in the vicinity of the question mark in the following quote? %uFFFFWe had been having conversations about it internally, and when we asked businesses, %uFFFFTruly, does anyone want this?%uFFFF we had a great response,%uFFFF Miller said. – from Des Moines, Iowa on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. It's covered in the MISCELLANEOUS section of the "question mark" entry. In brief, the question mark isn't followed by a comma in an attribution.

Q. should money laundering as an adjective be hyphenated? – from New York on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. Generally it's a noun phrase without a hyphen in such formulations as money laundering charges, money laundering scheme.

Q. Is it turbo machinery, turbo-machinery or turbomachinery? What about other words that start with "turbo"? Is there a specific rule to be followed when it comes to this prefix? Thanks – from San Francisco on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. The dictionary doesn't hyphenate terms that use the combining form turbo. Generally AP stories spell it turbomachinery.

Q. Is a comma needed after the time in the following example? The picnic will take place at 4 p.m. Sunday. – from St. Paul , Minn. on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. No comma.

Q. I've noticed this kind of usage creep into government speak: "The public comment process will inform the agency's decision on XYZ." I don't think a process can "inform" decisions. What would be a more proper use of the term "inform" in this context? – from St. Paul , Minn. on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. Presumably it means something like ... public comments will be taken into consideration ... or will influence ... the agency's decision.

Q. I know the AP recommends not using the word "elderly" unless pertinent to the story. What do you suggest a writer use in place of "elderly," particularly in the following instance, "non-elderly beneficiaries who use mental health services." – from BROOKLYN, N.Y. on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. Try ... all beneficiaries who use ... or, people of all ages who use ... or, adults and young people who use ...

Q. Is it through traffic or thru traffic? And with or without hyphen? – from Reading, Pa. on Wed, Jul 27, 2016

A. An AP story about roadway congestion put it like this: The highway will be closed to through traffic for much of the day.

Q. Hi, I have an article submitted by an organization called the Palm Springs Regional Association of Realtors%uFFFF. They have a registration trademark after the name Realtors. If used as part of the organization's name, should I include the trademark? It does show up that way on their website. Thanks, James Powers – from Palm Springs, Calif. on Tue, Jul 26, 2016

A. AP doesn't use the registration trademark in news stories largely because of technical transmission issues. See the "Realtor" entry for guidanced on that capitalized term.

Q. Writing a feature about an organization that has changed names over the years... Do you use the current name on all references present and past, or use the name that is specific to the point in history being written about in a given paragraph? – from Farmington, Conn. on Tue, Jul 26, 2016

A. Use the current name but note that the organization was formerly named X and Y.

Q. What is the correct capitalization or punctuation, if any, for hula hoop? – from NJ on Tue, Jul 26, 2016

A. It's Hula-Hoop for the trademark name of a lightweight hoop twirled around the hips.

Q. For the combatant commands - U.S. Southern Command, U.S. Northern Command, U.S. Central Command, etc. - would the proper acronym be USSOUTHCOM, USNORTHCOM, USCENTCOM, etc., or just SOUTHCOM, NORTHCOM, CENTCOM? – from Washington on Tue, Jul 26, 2016

A. AP stories generally use the acronyms without US on second reference to the spelled out U.S. commands. It's often all-caps for CENTCOM but frequently Southcom and Northcom for the others.

Q. I am editing an author's bio within a news release announcing an event. The author prefers to go by the pronoun "they," but this is confusing in a bio that mentions awards and degrees only one person has received. For example, the bio says, "They are the recipient of ..." and "They currently teach at ..." Does AP have guidance when an individual prefers to go by a plural pronoun? Should I just play it safe and use the author's last name repeatedly throughout the bio to avoid confusion for the readers? – from High Point, N.C. on Mon, Jul 25, 2016

A. An AP story might note the individual's preferred pronoun. For clarity, however, the story would use the surname instead of they.

Q. A question on politically correct language. Is it considered a negative stereotype to say that someone has welshed on a deal? (whether or not the person is actually Welsh) – from Tokyo on Sun, Jul 24, 2016

A. You'd probably want to avoid that informal or slang term, which has a pejorative connotation. Better to specify what the person actually did or didn't do.

Q. Should a chiropractor be called Dr. in a story? Such a degree is not listed in the entry for "Dr." However, there are no mentions of chiropractors at all in the stylebook. Thanks! – from Etowah , N.C. on Sat, Jul 23, 2016

A. AP does not use the title Dr. for chiropractors.

Q. When designating height in sports listings: 2M or 2m? And, would a writer ever need to include the zero as in: 2.0 meters? I understand 2.5 meters would be correct. But 2.0? – from Tulsa, Okla. on Sat, Jul 23, 2016

A. It's 2 meters as an exact measurement, with meters spelled out.

Q. Your sole "nosedive" Ask-The-Editor item is at odds with the dictionary's "nose-dive" spelling -- which is it, "nosedive" or "nose-dive"? – from Shoreline, Wash. on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. It's nosedive (n.) and nose-dive (v.) in Webster's NWCD, Fifth Edition. My previous answer has been corrected. Thanks for outpointing.

Q. The FDA often omits the definite article "the" when referring to itself. For example, "FDA is responsible for protecting the public health by regulating drugs and devices." Many industry publications follow the FDA's lead and also omit it. Personally, I think it sounds awkward. What does AP style dictate? Do we follow the rules of grammar or defer to the Agency's usage? – from Salt Lake City on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. AP headlines use the abbreviation without the article, as in this example: FDA approves first dissolving stent for US patients. Within stories, however, it's the Food and Drug Administration on first reference and the FDA thereafter.

Q. I write about the life sciences. I've noticed that industry publications are inconsistent in their spelling/usage (plural vs. singular) of the term. Some use "life sciences' -- even when I appears as an adjective. For example, "Life sciences companies are subjected to stringent FDA regulations." Others use the single form when using it as an adjective. For example, "The life science industry is highly regulated." Our company, which follows AP style, uses the singular form in adjective phrases (ex: life science companies) but the plural form when its used as a noun (ex: "She works in the life sciences"). Has AP ever made an official ruling on this? – from Salt Lake City on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. In AP stories, generally it's the life science company (singular) and life sciences companies (plural). Also, news archives show the life sciences industry and life sciences industries.

Q. NW shows chatroom; there's a 2010 FAQ response that says chat room. Are you still using two words or should we follow the dictionary now? – from Washington on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. It's chat room, two words, in Webster's NWCD, Fifth Edition. This spelling also appears within the Stylebook in a social media context.

Q. Please help! This always stumps me. Can a clause with an implied subject be considered independent and therefore not subject to the comma before coordinating conjunction rule? For example: I was exhausted, but went to the concert anyway. Would the same rule(s) apply to longer, more complex sentences--or do I have to insert a comma before 'and' in the example below? EX: The design allows customers to easily scale up (or down) according to their needs and integrates with other third-party solutions so that data is streamlined throughout different business areas. – from Salt Lake City on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. No comma when the subject of the two clauses is the same and is not repeated in the second. See WITH CONJUCTIONS section of the "comma entry" for guidelines.

Q. Should U-17 and U-20, the age designations for national soccer teams, be written out, i.e., under-17 and under-20 soccer team? – from Columbus, Ohio on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. The abbreviations are widely used on first references in AP soccer stories.

Q. In this example: "The international celebration for Catholics was started by St. John Paul II in 1985," should John Paul be referred to as "Pope John Paul II" since he was a pope, and not a saint, at the time he started the event? The story is about World Youth Day. – from The Villages, Florida on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. By the Stylebook's "pope" entry, St. John Paul II on first reference. On second reference, John Paul. Make clear in the body of the story that he was a pope.

Q. What is the correct past tense of 'strike' when referring to a union's past strike? They struck? They striked? Nothing sounds correct. Many thanks! – from Houston on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. Generally formulated with the noun strike: The last strike was in 2010. The workers went on strike last week. Employees have been out on strike for a month.

Q. When a sentence begins with a percentage, should the number be spelled out, or should it be a numeral? Ninety percent of the surgeries ... or 90 percent of the surgeries ... ? – from Elgin, Ill. on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. Yes, spell out that figure to start a sentence.

Q. Semiautonomous or semi-autonomous? – from Portland, Ore. on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. Deferring to the dictionary's semiautonomous.

Q. In this sentence, "The dual obligation of being both healer and judge comprise our response in mercy and justice," should be "comprises," correct? (Because "dual obligation" is a collective noun, or because the verb goes back to "obligation" only and does not include the adjective?) – from Alexandria, Va. on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. Use a singular verb in this formulation. However, guides or shapes our response might be better word choices

Q. Example sentence: " The drone manufacturer's latest features a zoom lens inside its camera system that offers 16x magnification." Does AP prefer "x" or "times"? – from Portland, Ore. on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. Make it 16 times magnification.

Q. Referring to high speed broadband - is it 100 gigabit or 100-gigabit; 100 gig or 100-gig? Thanks – from Dublin , Ohio on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. It's a 100-gigabit network. Or, the bandwidth is 100 gigabits per second.

Q. Hi AP. I'm editing an article about election polls. I know according to your "mid-" entry that the sentence "Trump's numbers have been hovering in the mid-30s for months" is correct. What about "low" in this situation? Sentence in question: "Johnson's polling numbers are stuck in the low 40s." Low 40s or low-40s? – from Madison, Wis. on Fri, Jul 22, 2016

A. It's low 40s without a hyphen.

Q. Are ragu and ragout interchangeable? If yes, in your definition of Bolognese, you use ragu, but in a Q to the E, you say AP prefers ragout. Which is correct? Thank you! – from Belleville, XX on Thu, Jul 21, 2016

A. For the sauce of meat and vegetables, use ragout for French recipes and ragu for Italian dishes.

Q. Do we capitalize the phrase, "communist bloc" as in "Goods could not be brought outside the communist bloc"? Thank you. – from Belmont, MI on Thu, Jul 21, 2016

A. Lowercase communist bloc.

Q. I can't seem to find the answer to this: Is it okay to abbreviate million or billion in a headline when you are referring to dollar amounts? For example, $10M or $8B ... – from Washington on Thu, Jul 21, 2016

A. Correct.

Q. Please clarify capitalization for class of misdemeanors. Aug. 1, 2014 - A. It's class A misdemeanor. This answer was particular to hyphenation but includes lowercase c in class. Jan. 12, 2015 - A. %uFFFF It's Class 4 felony if that's the spelling in your jurisdiction. This answer indicates Class is capitalized. Our question is: To capitalize or not capitalize class in reference to misdemeanors? – from St. George, Utah on Thu, Jul 21, 2016

A. It seems to depend on the jurisdiction. AP stories from some states capitalize the C when listing the class of felony or misdemeanor, others use lowercase c. Better check with legal officials in Utah to determine the spelling.

Q. In the phrase "about 15 to 20 words," is it correct to use the word "to" as shown, or should it be written as "about 15-20 words"? – from Kansas City, Mo. on Thu, Jul 21, 2016

A. Either way is fine.

Q. Hello. I know there's an entry from 2008 where it says it should be "rain forest" (two words), as opposed to "rainforest" (one word). Just wondering if you've changed your take on this particular spelling, since eight years have passed since then. Most sources use the one-word version, so I've been wondering. Thanks. – from San Francisco on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. I now see that the Stylebook's main reference has gone over to the one-word spelling: rainforest. In its previous edition, Webster's New World College Dictionary used the two-word spelling. In the absence of a Stylebook entry or usage, we generally follow the current dictionary entry: rainforest.

Q. I know that both "Alabaman" and "Alabamian" are correct, but can you tell me which is preferred by editors? – from Montgomery, Ala. on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. Alabamian is preferred, based on a check of AP news archives. Alabamian is also the primary spelling in the dictionary.

Q. In text where the use of "he or she" is necessary, what is the preferred usage? "he or she" OR he/she? Same question for "his or her" or his/her? – from Baldwin City, Kan. on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. When necessary, use he or she. However, consult the "his, her" entry for elaboration.

Q. Is the company "Airbnb" or "AirBnb" with capitalization? – from St. Petersburg, Fla. on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. AP stories use Airbnb.

Q. Which of the following constructions would be correct: "the Chicago-to-Fort-Wayne-and-Ohio passenger rail service" or "the Chicago-to-Fort Wayne-and-Ohio passenger rail service"? In other words, would "Fort Wayne" be considered a single entity in the adjective phrase? Thanks! – from Fort Wayne, Ind. on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. It's so much easier on the eyes without hyphens: the Chicago to Fort Wayne and Ohio passenger rail service.

Q. Is up to date supposed to be hyphenated in this setance? It's after the noun but still seems like a compound modifier. As the superintendent, her is in charge of keeping equipment up-to-date on safety. – from AE, AP on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. Yes, probably clearer as written in this formulation. Don't you mean she is in charge, rather than her?

Q. Should teen program or lifeguard course be hyphenated when used in a job title? Is it considered a modifier? For example: teen-program coordinator and lifeguard-course instructor. Thanks! – from AE, AP on Wed, Jul 20, 2016

A. These are job descriptions and don't require hyphens.

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