Ask the Editor

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Ask the Editor provides answers, clarification and guidance on style issues that go beyond the pages of the AP Stylebook. Before posing a question to AP editor David Minthorn, search the accompanying style archives for your topic. With thousands of questions and answers on file, your topic has very likely been covered. For typical style questions and responses, visit Ask the Editor FAQ.

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Ask the Editor questions from the past week:

Q. Should it be "who to contact with questions" or "whom to contact with questions"? – from Chicago on Thu, Jul 02, 2015

A. Whom to contact with questions. See "who, whom" entry.

Q. Although I was taught decades ago in college that AP prefers "said" to "says" in quoted material, I can't find anything here to confirm that. Does AP have a rule on this? If so, what is it? – from Oak Ridge, Tenn. on Thu, Jul 02, 2015

A. In news usage, said is the customary attribution. However, says is used in initial versions of AP stories for broadcast. Says is also used in some feature stories or narratives to express a sense of ongoing present or for mood.

Q. You really didn't answer my question which involves a story that doesn't have a city/state in the dateline. We wouldn't post a story in Pensacola with a Pensacola dateline, so my original question is: Do we still have to put Florida, behind the city in the story? Especially if it involves local towns? Can you clarify the new policy on listing states in stories. For example, we're in Pensacola, Florida, so we wouldn't use a dateline, so if we mention Pensacola in the story, we have to add , Florida, ? And does that apply to every nearby city? %uFFFD from Pensacola, Fla. on Wed, Jul 01, 2015 A. If an AP story uses Florida city in the dateline, other Florida cities mentioned in the text don't need to have the state included unless confusion might arise -- say, with a city in another state with the same name. – from Pensacola, Fla. on Thu, Jul 02, 2015

A. No, don't add Florida after Pensacola in the story text or for other nearby cities understood to be within the state.

Q. It has recently come to my attention that the AP stylebook recommends not using the title "Dr." for people holding a PhD degree. I am an MD and recently won an award with two PhDs, equivalent award for equivalent stature all around, but the newspaper article refers to me as "Dr." and my colleagues as "Mr." This is frankly insulting to them and outdated. If it had gone the other way, referring to them as "Dr." and to me as "Mrs." I would have been outraged. This policy introduces inaccuracy in reporting, as it diminishes the perceived PhD academic contribution. Can this recommendation please be changed? – from Worcester, MA on Thu, Jul 02, 2015

A. See the appropriate entries in the AP Stylebook -- "academic degrees," "doctor," "Ph.D., Ph.D.s," "courtesy titles" -- to understand our guidance, which is not as used in the article. An AP story would specify that the two other individuals hold doctorates and their specialties. AP doesn't use Mr. and Mrs. as a title except in direct quotes, or Mrs. only if requested by a woman.

Q. I am editing this article and came across a phrase 10 cents per pound pickup cost. Your thoughts on hyphenating 10-cents-per-pound as a compound modifier. – from Orysia, New York City, N.Y. on Thu, Jul 02, 2015

A. My thought is to rewrite it to avoid an awkward modifier: a pickup cost of 10 cents per pound.

Q. Is "goal driven" always hyphenated regardless of whether it is compound modifier? Is it "I am goal driven" or "I am goal-driven."? And always "She is a goal-driven person."? – from Chandler, Ariz. on Thu, Jul 02, 2015

A. By the dictionary entry, hyphenate words with the combining form -driven: goal-driven.

Q. Is there a rule as to whether or not a professional title should use "of"? For example: Bob is the vice president, sales for Company A. versus Bob is the vice president of sales for Company A. – from Houston on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. A news story would favor the second: Bob Smith is the vice president of sales for Company A.

Q. I have seen conflicting answers in Ask the Editor regarding references to web pages, sections, links, buttons, etc. Capitalize titles, but not buttons? Use quotations or do not? Keep all punctuation inside quote marks? Click Submit. Click "Submit." Click "Submit". Click submit. Select Maps & Directions. Select "Maps & Directions." Select "Maps & Directions". Select maps & directions. Please clarify. Thank you! – from Elgin, Ill. on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. Word usages and instructions vary from website to website. Be guided by spellings on the link you're referring to. If a term is capitalized on the website, then cap it for the instruction. If lowercase, then use the same spelling in your reference. Terms such as "submit" are enclosed for emphasis in the answer. Keep punctuation inside quotes. Select maps and directions (or "maps and directions.")

Q. Should mobile health be abbreviated m-health or mHealth? – from San Francisco on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. Spell it out: mobile health.

Q. Punctuating indirect quotes. I need some help on when to use a comma in punctuating indirect quotes. Please see examples below and let me know when/if commas are needed. Thanks Kelderman said some of the lines had never..... Kelderman said, during th eprocess of locating... Kelderman said, the team worked closely.... – from Richmond, Va on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. Kelderman said some of the lines had never ...; Kelderman said that during the process of locating ...; Kelderman said the team worked closely ...

Q. Quick Question - I am looking for a rule about when to use a colon prior to a list. I have the rule in my head of "if there are three or more items use a colon to introduce the list." Is this correct? – from Athens, Ga. on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. A list introduced by a colon is generally three or more items.

Q. The Roman numerals entry doesn't make clear AP's stance on movies. Would it be "Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope" or "Star Wars Episode 4: A New Hope" or "Star Wars Episode Four: A New Hope"? – from New York on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. Star Wars: Episode VIII

Q. Can you clarify the new policy on listing states in stories. For example, we're in Pensacola, Florida, so we wouldn't use a dateline, so if we mention Pensacola in the story, we have to add , Florida, ? And does that apply to every nearby city? – from Pensacola, Fla. on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. If an AP story uses Florida city in the dateline, other Florida cities mentioned in the text don't need to have the state included unless confusion might arise -- say, with a city in another state with the same name.

Q. Is it E-Pass or E-PASS for the electric toll collector? – from Orlando, Fla. on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. The generic term is e-pass. If it's a brand name, capitalize E-pass.

Q. In a sentence (not a headline or dateline), is it Washington, D.C., or Washington, DC? – from Washington on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. Washington, D.C.

Q. Dear AP eds, With all due respect, we're a little puzzled by your response to our question this week about whether you prefer the spelling "shahid" or "shaheed." You replied that you've only seen this word used as a given name and with both spellings. But many news stories, including your own, feature this word as a common noun -- it means "martyr" in Arabic and is used to glorify suicide bombers. Here is just one example I copied and pasted (from late April): BOSTON (AP) %uFFFD Testimony in the trial of Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev zeroed in Tuesday on his late brother's wife, revealing searches done on her computer on the rewards of dying as a martyr's spouse and raising questions about what she knew before the 2013 attacks. Mark Spencer, a computer expert testifying for the defense, said a computer belonging to Tamerlan Tsarnaev's wife, Katherine Russell, contained searches done more than a year before the bombings for terms that included "rewards for wife of mujahedeen" and "If your husband becomes a shahid, what are the rewards for you?" We would guess from the above that your preferred spelling is probably "shahid," but would welcome a formal ruling for the sake of consistency.(And also, what would be the plural?)Thank you! – from Tel Aviv, XX on Wed, Jul 01, 2015

A. You are correct. New search of archive did turn up several uses with the spelling "shahid" for martyr.

Q. I know Gothic is capitalized (for the architectural movement), but what about Neo-Gothic? Or is neo-Gothic? – from Tokyo on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. It's neo-Gothic.

Q. Should singular nouns or plural nouns follow the word 'No.' We're reporting on a medical outbreak and are wondering if "No additional cases of the disease have been reported" or "No additional case of the disease has been reported" is better? Thank you. – from Virginia, XX on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. The verb should agree with the subject, which is cases (pl.) or case (sing.), depending the phrasing you use.

Q. Greetings, When referencing credit card bonus points, for example, would you use numerals or would you spell out numbers below 10? Example: Cardholders earn two points for every dollar spent. – from Washington , District of Columbia on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. Spell out points under 10.

Q. Hi: I submitted this question this week and just want to be sure about a comma or not in "Hi there." I wasn't clear on whether your answer, "comma," referred to everything in my original question. Thanks! Here are the original question and answer: "Q. Hi there. Is the lack of a comma in this salutation correct? What about in cases such as "Hi, Adrian" and "Dear Sir"? Comma or no? Thank you. %uFFFD from Tustin, Calif. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015 A. Comma." – from Tustin, Calif. on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. Hi, there: Hi, Adrian: Dear Sir, or Dear Sir:

Q. I'm struggling to find a term that encompasses both Native Americans in the U.S. and their Canadian counterparts, who are not called Native Americans or Indians. Do you have a preference or some guidance? Thank you. – from Portland, Oregon on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. Use First Nation for tribal people of Canada.

Q. How should we handle a headline in an instance where a colon already exists and we are adding something before it, such as the last name of an opinion columnist, to add clarification that the piece in question is opinion-oriented content, not a news story? Would a colon between the columnist's name and the headline be appropriate, and the second colon would be replaced with an em dash, or is a different treatment option better? Rewrites are not an option. – from Lakeland, Florida on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. Yes, that would work if The Ledger permits a dash in a headline.

Q. Is it appropriate to use U.S. on first reference? – from Lake Charles LA on Tue, Jun 30, 2015

A. Yes. See Stylebook entry.

Q. Which is it: to-do list, to do list or todo list? Using a hyphen would seem to confuse the meaning of "something yet to be done" with "a bustle, a stir, a fuss." – from Tokyo on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. It's to-do list, as in several Q&A's at this site.

Q. Could you clarify the correct spelling of "spellcheck" and "fact-check"? If these words are constructed differently, why is that so? – from Sydney, Australia on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Deferring to Webster's NWCD, Fifth Edition: spell check (v.), spell-checker (n.). The same dictionary hyphenates both fact-check (v.) and fact-checker (n.). Other than usage, I have no explanation for the difference. However, I do see spellcheck (n.) often as a one-word compound, particularly in software references.

Q. When does one use tall vs high? For example, a tree is 10 feet tall or high? What about something like a wall or a sculpture? Is there a rule to help me remember when to use which one? Thanks! – from Phoenix on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. While these descriptives can be interchangeable in some contexts (a tree may be either tall or high), certain references or idioms require one or the other (a person is 6 feet tall, but not high as a measure of stature). Check the dictionary entries for examples, or search for both words in the AP Stylebook to see various uses.

Q. It's wildfire season. In the Ask the Editor archives, I find: %uFFFD "Hayman fire" lowercase (6/23/10) %uFFFD "Sam Hill fire" down but the historically significant "Yacolt Burn" up (7/21/14) %uFFFD Major burns like the "King Fire" and "2009 Station Fire" up (9/30/14) Does capitalization come with significance of a fire, and how big does a fire need to get to be a Fire? – from Vancouver, Wash. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. No doubt the magnitude of the fire influences capitalization. News stories often follow the spellings of the U.S. Forest Service or other agencies that bestow or adopt names.

Q. I am unsure of whether to use the past tense or the present tense in the following example. Please help. Thank you. As of Sunday, 50 people had been released from hospitals. Of those diagnosed with the disease, 74 remain/remained hospitalized and 34 are/were currently in critical condition. – from Virginia, XX on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Initial versions of AP news stories generally use forms of t he present, present perfect or future verb tenses favored by broadcasters. Follow-up versions or writethrus use past tense for print publication. In your example, don't use currently with the imperfect "were."

Q. We offer different types of programs and publications, and I'm always going back and forth what qualifies for quotation marks and what doesn't Any leads would be helpful. "Grass to Hawks" is a day-long field trip program for second and third graders. "You and the Food Chain" is the four-page handout students get when they show up for "Grass to Hawks." "Horse Sense" is our five-day summer camp. Riders 12 and older can sign up for our six week "Horsemanship I" lesson program. Before you leave, make sure to pick up a copy of our "Visitors Guide." – on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. "Grass to Hawks" is a daylong field trip program for second- and third-graders. "You and the Food Chain" is the four-page handout students receive when starting "Grass to Hawks." "Horse Sense" is our five-day summer camp program. Riders 12 and older can sign up for our six-week Horsemanship I lesson program. Before you leave, make sure to pick up a copy of our Visitors Guide. (Note spelling changes, including hyphenated terms. Program titles and publications are enclosed in quotes. Horsemanship I looks like a course title, so doesn't need quotes. Visitors Guide looks like a reference and doesn't need quotes.)

Q. In referring to Kevin Smith, DNR Wildlife's Pheasant Action Plan Coordinator, should there be caps on the first letters of the last four words? Thanks. – from medina, Minn. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. No, and you probably will have spelled out DNR on first reference so everyone knows what the abbreviation means.

Q. Compound modifier question: 50-plus year career or 50-plus-year career? – from Phoenix on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Better to use the exact number of years -- e.g., a 52-year career. If you must use with plus, make it a career of 50-plus years.

Q. Based on the Merriam-Webster dictionary entry, it is my understanding that it would be semiannual; as in a semiannual sale. Is this correct, or does AP handle this differently? Numerous companies are promoting Semi-Annual Sales. – from Charlotte, N.C. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Look up the the AP Stylebook entry to find semiannual, which isn't hyphenated. Our primary reference is Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fifth Edition, not the dictionary you cite.

Q. In a list of film titles and run times, should I include quotations around film titles and write out minutes? Example: NOON: Clouds of Sils Maria (124 min) 2:30 p.m. Manglehorn (97 min) – from New Orleans on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Noon: "Clouds of Sils Maria" (124 min.) 2:30 p.m.: "Manglehorn" (97 min.)

Q. Hi there. Is the lack of a comma in this salutation correct? What about in cases such as "Hi, Adrian" and "Dear Sir"? Comma or no? Thank you. – from Tustin, Calif. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Comma.

Q. When talking about the depth of a topic and referring to one's knowledge of the topic, would you hyphenate: "They know the ins and outs of the project." – from NY, N.Y. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. The dictionary doesn't hyphenate the ins and outs of ...

Q. In a church's name, is AME acceptable on first reference as an acronym for African Methodist Episcopal? – from Mount Pleasant, S.C. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. Within a news story, AP generally spells out African Methodist Episcopal on first reference. AME may be used in a headline with church or another term to make the abbreviation clear.

Q. Are you now dropping the long-standing rule on comma use before the word including? Your answer certainly conflicts with a response from last year Q. Hi! Does including always have a comma before it? Or does that equal one too many commas? Rewording may be possible. Please see below. Thanks! In late June, four veteran Math Department faculty will work with 49 teachers from U.K. schools including Wellington College, a coed day and boarding school outside London, and Ark, a network of 31 high-achieving, nonselective schools in urban areas. from Exeter, N.H. on Jun 18, 2015 A. No, but it would be easier to understand written as two sentences: ... 49 teachers from U.K. schools. They include Wellington .... Q. When do I use a comma before the word "including," and when do I not? from Rochester, N.Y. on Apr 13, 2014 A. Use a comma before a partial list or an example introduced by including. – from Chicago on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. No, not dropping the guidance. But this complex sentence would be clearer written as two sentences, using a period instead of an added comma.

Q. Home improvement project or home-improvement project? – from Chicago on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. No hyphen in home improvement projects.

Q. While editing a release, I came across "glocal" used in a quote. I assumed this was a typo for "global" but later learned that this was intended, and that the word, to the speaker, meant "both global and local." It's in a quote, so my impulse is the provide a parenthetical definition, since it is a word that Google says is being increasingly used these days. What do you think? – from Northbrook, Ill. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. The word doesn't show in the AP news archive. However, if it were to appear in a direct quote, AP would use it unchanged and add a separate sentence after the quote with a brief definition. We avoid parenthetical inserts as jarring to the reader.

Q. Has AP adopted a style for the rainbow flag? I've seen Rainbow flag and rainbow flag. – from Atlanta, Ga. on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. In AP stories, it's rainbow flag. Cap the R in starting a sentence, though.

Q. In stories about suicide bombings and similar, we sometimes need to use the Arabic word "shahid" or "shaheed." Your style guide currently doesn't have a ruling on the preferred spelling, so we'd like one, please. And what would be the plural? – from Tel Aviv, XX on Mon, Jun 29, 2015

A. AP stories have used Shahid and Shaheed as a given name. I don't find other references.

Q. If I want to say that the company laid off workers twice this year. Once in February and once in May. Is this sentence correct %uFFFD The company laid off workers twice in February and May ? If it's incorrect, how could it be written? Thank you. – from Virginia, XX on Sun, Jun 28, 2015

A. The company laid off workers twice this year, once in February and again in May.

Q. Do you hyphenate groups of colors as an adjective? E.g. You say zebra prints are black-and-white stripes (http://www.apstylebook.com/online/?do=entry&id=5290&src=AE), but would this hyphenation principle extend to the American red-white-and-blue flag? Or is it red, white and blue flag? – from Tokyo on Sun, Jun 28, 2015

A. It's the red, white and blue American flag.

Q. How is the name of a product treated in the title of a document when the company uses lower case? "Tidbits Following Management Conversations, clariti and MyDay Ramping" is the title. The product, clariti, is lower cased throughout the remainder of the document. – from Saint Petersburg, Florida on Sun, Jun 28, 2015

A. AP capitalizes products and brand name: Clariti.

Q. If memory serves, the AP Stylebook used to have this entry: Named for should be used instead of named after. Why was it removed? I have been in this business for 42 years -- and every editor who taught me in my early years drilled it into my head that it's named for and not named after. – from Memphis, Tenn. on Sat, Jun 27, 2015

A. The current AP Stylebook includes definitions that use either named after or named for. I don't recall seeing Stylebook guidance against using named after.

Q. If it's proper style to set a TV show name in quotation marks, how do I handle possessives, as in "L.A. Law"'s cast and crew? Do I omit the quotation marks for sanity's sake? – from Rio Hondo, Texas on Sat, Jun 27, 2015

A. Rephrase to express the possessive without tweaking a formal title: the cast and crew of "L.A. Law."

Q. which is correct: "named after" or "named for"? – from Memphis, Tenn. on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. By dictionary definitions of these prepositions, both mean in honor of. Both are correct and synonymous.

Q. Hyphen or no hyphen? [Name] is a property-tax attorney in [town] . Thank you. – from New Jersey on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. No hyphen.

Q. Where would you put the comma after "outcomes" in this sentence? Or would you use one at all? %uFFFDUnless we start asking, %uFFFDWhat will this do for health outcomes?%uFFFD, the answers will never present themselves.%uFFFD – from Des Moines, Iowa on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. No comma after outcomes. The question mark replaces it.

Q. What is the correct way to punctuate "company owned and operated" as an adjective: "company owned and operated plants"? Is it hyphenated: "Company-owned and -operated plants"? – from Reston, Va. on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. Correct as company-owned and -operated plants.

Q. ...as Sun Tzu says in %uFFFDThe Art of War,%uFFFD %uFFFDHe will win who knows when t fight and when not to fight.%uFFFD Is the comma placement above correct? It looks wrong. – from Scottsdale, Ariz. on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. Yes, but rephrase to avoid abutting quotation marks: ... as written in "The Art of War" by Sun Tzu, "He will win ..."

Q. How do you write 20/twenty if a person refers to a $20 bill as "a twenty"? Same with "a ten." – from Des Moines, Iowa on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. You could spell out "a twenty" or "a ten" as a casual use of a number, per guidance in the "numerals" entry. But if you want to be precise, use the figure with dollar sign: He gave me a $20 ... he gave me a $10.

Q. When is it audience, and when audiences? AP seems to be using audiences uniformly and Merriam-Webster only has an entry for audience and does not mention audiences. – from New Delhi, XX on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. No, AP uses either form depending on the phrasing of the story. Singular: A chilly Pope Francis cheered the thousands of pilgrims who braved a cold snap belting Italy to attend his weekly general audience ... Plural: This Broadway season has been rich with roles for African-Americans and audiences are responding, from the packed Brooks Atkinson Theatre ... to the overfilled Circle in the Square.

Q. Government agencies have started using the term etool e tool, or eTool for an automated spreadsheet, available online, that helps their clients or the public perform certain tasks such as calculating their eligibility for grant funds. What is the correct capitalization for the etool and should it be used at all? Thanks. – from Gaithersburg, MD on Fri, Jun 26, 2015

A. Hyphenate e-tool. If starting a sentence, it's E-tool.

Q. When creating a formal invitation, is it preferable to use the date of the event in AP-style preference with the preferred abbreviations (e.g., Sept. 15, Nov. 10, June 5) or to not abbreviate any of the months (e.g., September 15, November 10, June 5)? – from Boise, Idaho on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. AP goes by the Stylebook entry.

Q. If a company does not use periods in "U.S." (for United States) in its name, should that style be maintained even though it is AP's style (and the style of the publication in which this will appear) to punctuate the abbreviation? – on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Punctuate U.S. within a story, including in a company name.

Q. Past "Ask the Editor" entries have addressed "longtime" as a single-word adjective. What about "longterm"? – from Springfield, Ill. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Two words, hyphenated as a modifier: We will win in the long term. He has a long-term assignment.

Q. Stylebook says elected officials and ministers both take an abbreviated title before first reference. What about an individual who is both? "the Rev. Sen. Smith" or "Sen. Rev. Smith"? – from Charlotte, N.C. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Use one abbreviated title before the full name and spell out the second as an appositive: Sen. John Smith, an ordained minister, etc.

Q. Does AP prefer Dutch or Netherlander as the demonym for the Netherlands? – from Atlanta, Calif. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Dutch.

Q. Should "may you" ever be used in a request, as in: "May you please review the attached document, if possible." I'm suddenly seeing a lot of this, but it seems grammatically wrong. – from Hallandale, Fla. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Don't use "may you" as a request. It's sufficient to say: Please review the attached document.

Q. There is some discrepancy between editors at my company if per person is hyphenated. Which is correct: per-person basis or per person basis? – from Columbus, Ohio on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Hyphenate per-person basis. However, it's wordy or even awkward. Try rephrasing with the indefinite article, as in: the fee is $40 a person.

Q. Hi Ask the Editor, our staff continues to be confused by the AP ratio rule. Which is correct? The combination produced complete remissions in 7 out of 8 patients, or the combination produced complete remissions in seven out of eight patients? I don't think this meets the definition of a true ratio but others disagree. – from Evanston, Ill. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Use figures for 7 out of 8 patients.

Q. I have seen calls for news media to omit or limit the use of the shooter's name in news stories following a high profile mass shooting (e.g. in Charleston last week). The argument is usually that a shooter's actions might in part be motivated by a desire for publicity for himself or his cause. Can you clarify AP policy on naming those accused of such crimes? – from Brooklyn, N.Y. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. In such cases, AP uses the name of the alleged perpetrator as provided by police or other authorities.

Q. Should there be any hyphens in "new product innovation team" when we are not referring to a new team but to a team that develops new products? What about "new product development"? – from Milwaukee on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Hyphens aren't needed for such terms.

Q. When referring to the American Flag, is it "Stars and Stripes" or "Stars n Stripes"? – from Stafford, Va. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Stars and Stripes.

Q. I've seen slight legal differences in 'kidnapping' and 'abduction.' Does AP differentiate or are the words interchangeable? – from Memphis, Tenn. on Thu, Jun 25, 2015

A. Use the term provided by police or other authorities as the primary description of a criminal case. In a kidnapping, abduction is sometimes used in a follow-up reference.

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