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Ask the Editor provides answers, clarification and guidance on style issues that go beyond the pages of the AP Stylebook. Before posing a question to AP editor David Minthorn, search the accompanying style archives for your topic. With thousands of questions and answers on file, your topic has very likely been covered. For typical style questions and responses, visit Ask the Editor FAQ.

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Ask the Editor questions from the past week:

Q. What is the AP style for foster child? A child in foster care? – from Idaho Falls, Idaho on Wed, Dec 17, 2014

A. News stories generally use foster child, foster parents. There may be situations where the term term is appropriate.

Q. Is the proper second reference for Malala Yousafzai Malala or Yousafzai? – from , Tulsa, Oklahoma on Wed, Dec 17, 2014

A. In AP stories she's Malala on second reference.

Q. will likely be or likely will be? – from Winter Park, Fla. on Wed, Dec 17, 2014

A. The second is preferable. The first is more informal.

Q. The first entry in the 2014 holiday style guide is "A Visit From St. Nicolas." Is "Nicolas" a typo, or is that the spelling of "Nicholas" in the original poem? – from Scranton, Pa. on Wed, Dec 17, 2014

A. Should read "A Visit From St. Nicholas." Thanks for pointing it out.

Q. In some technical documents I'm editing, I've come across datalink and data link. So what would AP suggest: one word or two? – from , Tucson on Wed, Dec 17, 2014

A. AP stories use two words for the common term data link, which is often a plural.

Q. How does AP abbreviate fiscal year? Is it FY2014 or FY 2014? – from Raleigh, N.C. on Wed, Dec 17, 2014

A. The second with a space.

Q. I'm uncertain of how to use the verb 'repent' correctly. Is the standard pattern 'repent something' or 'repent for something' ? Thank you – from Seoul, XX on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. The dictionary entry says "of" is commonly used with repent, as in repent of one's sins. Repent for is another standard usage.

Q. Capitalized title or not - (note comma): "....optimism related to the country's pro-business prime minister-elect, Narendra Modi." Thanks! – from , Manchester, N.H. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Correct as written with name set off. Otherwise, Prime Minister-elect Narendra Modi.

Q. IS it correct to use hyphens in the statement "first-of-its-kind?" Why or why not? – from McLean, Va. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Hyphenate as compound modifier preceding noun: a first-of-its-kind water plan.

Q. Couldn't find this in the stylebook. When talking about a branch campus, would there be a hyphen used? For example: The student attended NOC-Stillwater OR The student attended OSU-Tulsa. – from Stillwater, Okla. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. AP stories from Oklahoma spell out the university or college name on first reference: Northern Oklahoma College-Stillwater initially, then NOC-Stillwater on follow-ups. Same for Oklahoma State University on first reference, including a hyphenated Tulsa for that campus when applicable, then OSU-Tulsa on second reference.

Q. Is it correct to use e-receipts? – from Mississippi State, Miss. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Yes.

Q. Is it "Happy Birthday" or "happy birthday"? – from Madison, Wis. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. "Happy birthday!" We wish you a happy birthday.

Q. You mentioned in a recent FAQ that a brand name could include a second capital letter, i.e. AstroTurf. Is this acceptable with a company name, as well, or should the name always be initial cap and lower case, even if the company itself uses a second cap in the name? – from Jefferson, Wis. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. See the "company names" entry for various examples, including ConocoPhillips, MasterCard Inc. and PepsiCo Inc.

Q. How should we treat free fall? At first glance at the dictionary, it's free fall, two words as a noun and hyphenated as a verb. But then there's a separate entry hypenated that makes this confusing. – from Centreville, Va. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Yes, these dictionary entries seem inconsistent. My interpretation, based on the examples, is that noun forms are primarily unhyphenated. AP stories often hyphenate the term as a modifier for parachuting, as in free-fall formations or free-fall jumps.

Q. Is it "cromnibus," "CRomnibus" or "Cromnibus" as the nickname for the 2015 "continuing resolution omnibus" budget agreement just passed by Congress? – from Washington on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Haven't seen that term. AP stories refer to the $1.1 trillion omnibus spending bill passed by Congress.

Q. A July answer on midcontinent/mid-continent/Mid-Continent in reference to U.S. oil-services companies suggested a lowercase and hyphenated "mid-continent," which seems to conflict with AP's entry on "mid-": no hyphen unless a capitalized word follows. Can you clarify? – from Chicago on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Right. The common term is midcontinent without a hyphen. Correcting the July Q&A. Thanks.

Q. I'm seeing the word "assure" crop up a lot in company documents I edit. Is it used correctly in this sentence: "And we must assure that customer expectations around cost and service are met if our company is to grow, be profitable, and maintain its competitive position." I thought it should be ensure but I'm seeing it so often now in sentences like this that I'm starting to wonder if I'm mistaken. Thanks. – from Duluth, Minn. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. The usage seems to be OK based on the example in the Stylebook's "ensure, insure, assure" entry.

Q. What would AP do with the term Red Scare, as in the 1950s? – from Farmington, Maine on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. Generally capitalized in AP references, such as Sen. Joe McCarthy's Red Scare of the 1950s.

Q. "Cromnibus" is quickly entering the lexicon. Should the term always first be placed in quotes, with a brief description following? – from Arlington, Va. on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. In AP stories, it's the $1.1 trillion omnibus spending bill passed by Congress.

Q. When talking about more than one certificate of deposit (CD) would it be certificates of deposit or certificate of deposits? – on Tue, Dec 16, 2014

A. The first is correct: certificates of deposit.

Q. Which is correct: Guy wire or guide wire when referring to wires attached to utility poles? – from Levittown, Pa. on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. A guy (n.) is a rope, chain, rod or wire attached to something to guide or steady it.

Q. "At risk for" or "at risk of"? – from , Palo Alto, Calif. on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Usually, at risk of. However, at risk for fits certain phrasings.

Q. Should the term "utility patent" be capitalized? – from Stockton, Calif. on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. No.

Q. AP style puts periods in academic degrees (B.A., M.S., Ph.D.)--except for MBA. Just curious as to why no periods in MBA? – from Washington on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. MBA is the first spelling in Webster's NWDC. Also, it's in wide usage without periods.

Q. I would like to know the proper formatting of the second "In" in the quotes, should it be capitalized or not? In addition, "in principle, it is possible to..." – from College Park, MD on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Yes. In starts the sentence in quotes.

Q. Do I capitalize the term "genderqueer" when referring to them it as a gender, like male and female? In context, "Sam Smith identifies as genderqueer/Genderqueer." – from Maplewood, N.J. on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Within a sentence, the term is lowercase.

Q. I know 'family' is collective noun, but because the predicate, do I use 'have been' or 'has been'? The family have been loyal donors and advocates for the University for many years. – from houston, Texas on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Using family as a collective noun, keep the references singular: The family has been a loyal donor and advocate for the university for many years. As family individuals, the references should be plural: The family members have been loyal donors and advocates for the university for many years.

Q. When including 800 numbers in text, is it appropriate to say "toll-free" before the number? For example, "Call us toll-free at 855-123-4567." And, should "toll-free" be hyphenated? – from Portland, Ore. on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Yes and yes.

Q. When listing states that are abbreviated via AP style guide specifications, are the states separated by comma or semicolon? For ex: Ark.; Iowa; Kan.; La.; and Texas? or Ark., Iowa, La., and Texas? – from , on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Use commas as in the examples in STATES IN HEADLINES section of the Stylebook's "state names" entry.

Q. In reference to an educational degree. Which is correct? M.Phil. in Economics at Oxford MPhil in Economics at Oxford – from Studio City, Calif. on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. For a news story, it's master's degree in economics from Oxford University. As an exception, the abbreviation might follow the individual's name in a list of people with academic degrees: John Smith, M.Phil. in economics, Oxford, University.

Q. I'm writing about a tool created for peer review. Is it a peer review tool or peer-review tool? – from Columbus, Ohio on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Make it peer review tool, no hyphen in the noun phrae.

Q. AP does not cap border collie. Would the same be true for border terrier? – from Farmington, Maine on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Yes.

Q. Is it "mumps" or "the mumps?" – from Pittsburgh on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. It usually depends on the phrasing. He came down with the mumps. The hospital provides vaccinations against polio, mumps and measles.

Q. Should Leading Economic Indexes (plural) be capitalized in a sentence such as: The Leading Economic Indexes for the U.S. and U.K continue to improve, according to reports from The Conference Board. – on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Use lowercase spelling.

Q. What are the rules for "for example" or "in other words" and their latin abbreviations - e.g. and i.e.? Should they be written out? And if abbreviated, does AP require a comma following them before the list or explanation? – from Cincinnati, Ohio on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. See "e.g." and "i.e." entries in the Stylebook. In brief, both are acceptable followed by commas.

Q. Washington is one of the cities that can stand alone in the dateline. However, the "District of Columbia" entry states it should be abbreviated only rarely, such as in datelines - and it lists the example of Washington, DC. Can you clarify? – from Cincinnati, Ohio on Mon, Dec 15, 2014

A. Only rarely to avoid confusion with another U.S. locality would the story dateline be WASHINGTON, D.C.

Q. I submitted a question about this earlier, but can I have confirmation? "We wish you a happy new year" or "We wish you a Happy New Year" or "We wish you a happy New Year"? – from Tokyo on Sun, Dec 14, 2014

A. Referring to the Jan. 1 holiday, "We wish you a happy New Year."

Q. Writing about baseball: Is spring training capitalized? – from st. paul, Minn. on Sat, Dec 13, 2014

A. Spell spring training lowercase.

Q. I saw in a search recently that while all works of art, titles of books, movies, poems, songs, classical music titles (but not Symphony No. x) and photos as art are inside quotes, titles of sculpture (The Thinker by Rodin) were not in quotes. Since this seems extremely inconsistent since sculpture is a work of art as much as a painting, I'd like to know if this has been reversed or if not what the reasoning is. Thanks. – from Manchester , Mo. on Sat, Dec 13, 2014

A. Sculpture also comes under the "artworks" entry. The longtime AP Stylebook guidance of not enclosing sculpture titles in quotation marks originated before my time. The likely intention was to differentiate sculpture with its three-dimensional effects from other artworks -- writing, music, painting, etc. -- the titles of which are enclosed in quotes.

Q. When would a writer use woken vs. awoken - if they are both past participles and both mean to cease sleeping? – from Atlanta on Sat, Dec 13, 2014

A. Your preference on using one or the other since the meanings are identical.

Q. There is a museum in New york City called the Museum of the City of New York. I have an article that uses City Museum as a short version of the name. Is this acceptable? Actually the deck reads Two City Museum exhibits speed and slow the city. Looking at it I had no idea what the author was trying to say. Anyway is City Museum acceptable in a deck? – from Orysia, New York City, N.Y. on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. AP stories use Museum of the City of New York on first reference, which becomes the museum in follow-ups. The official website uses City Museum on second reference after the full name initially. In the headline, try this: NYC museum shows city's tempo in two exhibits

Q. Would "new year" be capitalized in either of the following instances: "... agenda set through the beginning of the new year" OR "The first session for the new year will be on Jan. 6"? – from Rosemead, Calif. on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. Both are lowercase. The Stylebook limits the capitalized spelling to the Jan. 1 holiday. Other uses of new year are down. Alternatively, you could substitute 2015 in both sentences.

Q. Hi, is it "in the best interest of shareholders" or "in the best interests of shareholders"? Thanks – from Flagstaff, Ariz. on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. Generally singular in AP business stories.

Q. How would cite the European Council, European Commission and European Parliament in a series? Can we write is as the European Council, the Commission and the Parliament? Thanks. – from , on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. AP stories use the full names capitalized on first reference as written in your first sentence. In follow-ups, the shorthand terms are lowercase council, commission and parliament.

Q. Regarding the word cyber. I understand cyberattack, cyberterrorism etc. These are nouns and become one word. The question concerns insurance that covers a variety of these things/events. Can cyber stand alone as an adjective when referring to a host of cyberthings or cyberevents. Is it cyber liability insurance (or cyber insurance) or would it become cyberliability insurance or cyberinsurance. My thinking is the insurance itself is not "cyber" -- it is protection for things or events that are cyber, so maybe it should stand alone. – from New Jersey on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. The newly released Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fifth Edition, added cyber as a stand-alone adjective, as in cyber shopping. By that definition, cyber liability insurance would be correct. The dictionary also retains the cyber- combining form for noun formations.

Q. I'm listing off companies who have authored an article in our publication. NOAA is one. In a comma separated list, do I refer to just the administration name (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) or do I include "the" and should "the" be capitalized? Thank you – from Portland, Ore. on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. You don't need the article in list of names.

Q. It would make sense to eliminate descriptors for Martin Luther King Jr. There should be no question about his identity. I think his name could stand alone. The words "slain civil rights leader" are almost ludicrous in this context. KOKOMO, Ind. (AP) %uFFFD Supporters of a planned monument in Kokomo honoring slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. say they%uFFFDre nearing their goal of raising $150,000 for the project. – from Nashville, Tenn. on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. The descriptor, if needed at all, would be better placed as a follow-up reference.

Q. We want to use the phrase anytime-anywhere (e.g. Consumer now have anytime-anywhere access to the money) in a sentence. Is it anytime, anywhere or anytime-anywhere. I've seen it both ways. – from Raleigh, N.C. on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. AP news stories use a comma for anytime, anywhere.

Q. Can you confirm the following is correct? The holiday will occur on Sun., Dec.25 When I look under months, it appears as if it should be: The holiday will occur on Sunday Dec. 25 – from Wayland, MA on Fri, Dec 12, 2014

A. The holiday is Sunday, Dec. 25. (Actually it's Thursday, Dec. 25.)

Q. Could you please confirm that we write "Net neutrality" (capping "Net")? I see it lower case in various published AP stories. Here's one example: Thanks. – from New York on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. In AP stories it's "net neutrality," enclosed in quotes with both n's lowercase.

Q. Is it road show or roadshow? – from Mesa, Ariz. on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. Go with the dictionary's listing, which is roadshow.

Q. We have a specific pep rally that is always right before Halloween. It is called the Black Light Pep Rally - so is it all capitalized? Just the black light or none of it? – from , Dallas, Tx on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. For a recurring, formally named event, you could stick with that capitalized spelling.

Q. Hello, I was wondering if it was acceptable to use an abbreviation for the procedure "dilation and curettage." It's often seen as "D&C," but I'm not sure if that's appropriate or if it should be styled differently. Thanks! – from Dallas on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. Although it hasn't come up, AP would spell out the term on first reference with an explanation. On second reference, the procedure would probably be clear. In a direct quote, D and C would be the likely usage.

Q. Hi! How should the 500/600 be written? It is part of a direct quote, which refers to 500 or 600 people, not five people or 600 people, and cannot be recast. Thanks! At the end of the two-day event, I spoke to five or six hundred people in a large auditorium, and there were great questions and comments. – from Exeter, N.H. on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. Hyphenate 500-600 in a direct quote for the range. The slash has very limited uses in AP stories, per that entry.

Q. Should it be "Leadership and its teams" or "Leadership and their teams" – from Grand Rapids, MI on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. For the collective noun, the first is correct.

Q. I'm aware of the composition titles entry, but how do you address the name of a concert. For example, the Springfield Chamber Orchestra is presenting a concert titled Classical Christmas Friday. Should Classical Christmas be in quotation marks, or just upper-cased? – from Erie, Pa. on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. You could enclose the full name in quotes as a finite event.

Q. Is there a preferred way to write %uFFFDHo, ho, ho%uFFFD? Is that right or is it %uFFFDHo! Ho! Ho!%uFFFD I%uFFFDm told that the Santa in %uFFFDA Christmas Story%uFFFD expresses it as %uFFFDHo-ho ho!%uFFFD If it makes any difference, I'm thinking Santa Claus and not the Jolly Green Giant. – from Downers Grove, Ill. on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. The dictionary lists it as ho-ho-ho.

Q. For an article about a high school, I'm referring to World Languages Department Chairwoman Jane Doe. Or, should I lowercase the department: world languages department Chairwoman Jane Doe? – from Farmingville, N.Y. on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. If her position is a formal title, it would be capitalized, though with the departmental name lowercase following her name: Chairwoman Jane Doe of the world languages department.

Q. In 2010 you said "flip book" should be two words (not one word). In the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, they show "flip-book" with a hyphen. Which is correct? – from Atlanta on Thu, Dec 11, 2014

A. The Stylebook's primary reference is Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fifth Edition, not the dictionary you cite. This recently published edition added flipbook, one word, so that's my updated recommendation.

Q. i am copy editing a real estate article and came across this term%uFFFDland lease. I have also seen it written land lease. Which is correct? – from Orysia, New York City, N.Y. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. It's land lease in AP stories.

Q. Hello, I'm struggling with whether a federal act in a compound modifier, as in "a HIPAA-compliant technology" needs to be hyphenated or not. Could you please advise? Thank you. – from Palo Alto, Calif. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Correct as you have it.

Q. I'm a bit confused about some apparently conflicting AP style rulings. Although new year is down in the sentence "The exhibition is planned for the new year" it's up in the salutation "Happy New Year." Are both uses correct here? – from Tokyo on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Correct. The capitalized salutation is for the Jan. 1 holiday, also called New Year's Day. The lowercase spelling refers to the initial days or weeks at the start of the new year.

Q. "An Hispanic Serving Institution" or "A Hispanic Serving Institution" ? – from Santa Cruz, , Calif. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Use the "a" article.

Q. When referring to awards, is 1st Place or First Place preferred? (For example: This vehicle's decorated resume include 1st Place Grand National MCA, 1st Place AACA Grand National, 1st Place Autorama, ....etc) – from Chandler, Ariz. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Make it first place because ordinals generally are spelled out below 10th.

Q. What is the correct way to format a state delegate's name/title? – from Portsmouth, Va. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. For the Virginia House of Delegates, an example: Republican 4th District Delegate Ben Chafin.

Q. I've never understood the phrase "get a word in edgewise." What function does "edgewise" serve in that phrase? It would seem to me it's expendable. Please educate me? – from Farmington, Conn. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. It's an expression that means, according to the dictionary, to manage to say something in a conversation being monopolized by another or others.

Q. How do I use the apostrophes in this sentence: "It was time for Aquinas's, Anselm's, and Bubbles' dinner." Is Bubbles singular possessive because it's now a name rather than a plural of a noun? Is it Bubbles's, like Aquinas's? – from San Anselmo, Calif. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Suggest rephrase that awkward construction to avoid the possessives: It was dinnertime for Aquinas, Anselm and Bubbles. If you must use the original, Acquinas', Anselm's and Bubbles' ...

Q. When writing a press release, is it okay to reference Corona-Norco Unified School District (CNUSD) in the first line and then refer to it as CNUSD everywhere else on the release? What's the AP way? – from Riverside, Calif. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. AP doesn't put an abbreviation in parentheses directly after the full name. Try using the school district on follow-ups to avoid the awkward abbreviation. If you must use it, CNUSD on second reference.

Q. Is it redundant to say: did a complete one-eighty turnaround ... Also, is one-eighty turnaround correct or should figures be used (180 turnaround)? – on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Yes, so one or the other but preferably: did a complete turnaround. If you must use the figure, did a 180-degree turnaround.

Q. Life-coaching company or life coaching company? – on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. No hyphen needed for life coaching company.

Q. What is the correct way to write this sentence? "He earned his Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership." – from McLean, Va. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. He earned his doctorate of management in organizational leadership.

Q. Does the earlier Ask the Editor answer about using "road map" as two words apply to the phrase when used in the abstract? For example, would road map be one or two words in "Define core capabilities and a company roadmap for digital transformation"? Thank you! – from Woodbridge , N.J. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Two words by the dictionary's second definition of road map: any set of directions, proposals, policies, etc., for achieving some objective.

Q. When senior is used in a rank before a name, such as Senior Trooper, should it be abbreviated Sr.? – from Minneapolis on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. The Stylebook's "junior, senior" entry says abbreviate as Jr. or Sr. only with the full names of persons or animals.

Q. Is it multitasker or multi-tasker? – from New York on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. The Stylebook's "multi" entry says generally this prefix isn't hyphenated. Also, it's multitasker in the dictionary spelling.

Q. I see that "maxed out" is not hyphenated - I originally searched for "bottom out" - would this be hyphenated if the phrase is along the lines of "X bottomed out at Y"? – from St. Louis on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. No hyphen in bottom out (v.).

Q. When capitalized is it E-Commerce or E-commerce? – from Houston on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. E-commerce to start a sentence.

Q. Isn't "first-ever" redundant? – from Rochester, Pa. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Yes, first suffices.

Q. In the medical field - I'm trying to determine the proper word style for: house staff vs. housestaff. Which is the correct way to use the term? Thanks – from Philadelphia on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Two words for house staff.

Q. Which is correct (or are both OK): ..."a full range of services" or "a full spectrum of services" OR "the full range of services, the full spectrum" My thought is 'a full range' is fine because there can be more than one range and 'the full range' makes it sound like there's only one range possible. What's your call on this? – from Encinitas, Calif. on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Your thought makes sense.

Q. per share prices are subject to ... OR per-share prices are subject to ... – on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Don't hyphenate per share prices or prices per share.

Q. Do I capitalize the trademark eConnect at the beginning of a sentence? – from Las Vegas on Wed, Dec 10, 2014

A. Yes. Or rewrite the sentence to place the name within.

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